stand up guy

A loyal and reliable friend.

Origin: The allusion is to someone who would be prepared to stand up and fight on your side if called on, i.e. one who, in the words of the earlier (late 19th century) phrase, would “stand up and be counted”.

Are you a stand up guy?


decoy effect

Decoy effect: Choices often occur relative to what is on offer rather than based on absolute preferences. The decoy effect is technically known as an ‘asymmetrically dominated choice’ and occurs when people’s preference for one option over another changes as a result of adding a third (similar but less attractive) option.
The decoy effect can cause us to spend and consume more than we really need. When a decoy option is present, we tend to make decisions based less on which option will best suit our purposes, and based more on what feels like the most advantageous choice. ( duh )
Decoys are a commonly used tool by businesses and corporations, to “nudge” us into buying more than we really need. Over time, this can add up to a big hit on our finances — and also on our health. Many products commonly pushed with decoys are unhealthy foods, such as soft drinks, the overconsumption of which can have serious health consequences. Sugary beverages in particular have been linked to an increased risk of type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and other chronic conditions,1 but they are far from the only product that often uses decoys to upsell larger portion sizes.
In an ideal decoy situation, there are three choices available:
The target is the choice someone else (for example, a business) wants you to make.
The competitor is the option competing with the target.
The decoy is the option that is added to nudge you towards the target.
The popcorn example. In this scenario the customer, are evaluating your options based on two factors: size and price. The large popcorn is the target, and the small is the competitor. The medium popcorn works as a decoy because it is asymmetrically dominated by the other two. Although it is bigger than the small, it is also more expensive, making it only partially superior. The large, however, contains more popcorn and is only slightly more expensive than the medium, making it less expensive per unit.
This situation was actually used in an informal experiment by National Geographic. Although very few people purchased the large popcorn when their only other option was the small, once the medium was added as a decoy, the large became “irresistible.”
As with all nudges, the decoy effect does not technically violate our free will, because it doesn’t impose any restrictions on us. Usually, decoys affect us without us even realizing it; whatever we ultimately choose, we believe that we are doing so independently. This invisibility is part of what makes the decoy effect so powerful. ( you cannot take anybody to court because you have been nudged )
In another study that specifically looked at the decoy effect, researchers asked participants to pick from sets of various products. As expected, when there was a decoy option present, people were more likely to pick the target. However, this effect was stronger if participants were told they would have to justify their selection to other people afterwards. Why? Decoys provide an easy rationale for people to choose the target: they emphasize the pros of choosing the target and the cons of choosing the competitor. They make us feel comfortable in our choice by handing us a ready-made justification for it.

#decoyeffect #nudge #upsell

racing driver

you should know that by being a racing driver you are under risk all the time. Being a racing driver means you are racing with other people and if you no longer go for a gap that exists you are no longer a racing driver because we are competing, we are competing to win and the main motivation to all of us is to compete for the victory, it is not to conserve for a fifth or sixth place.

#AyrtonSenna #RacingDriver